Microbiome Glossary

TERM DEFINITION
A Probiotic Life A cross-media project by Toni Harmon that explores the latest science and health benefits of living a pro-bacterial life.
Actazin® kiwifruit powder A whole food concentrate derived entirely from the New Zealand kiwifruit that supports regularity, promotes colon health, and helps probiotics colonize and take up permanent residence within the intestinal tract. Excellent for pregnancy-related constipation.
Alimentary canal The mucous membrane-lined pathway by which food enters the body, digestion takes place, and solid wastes are expelled. The alimentary canal includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

Allochthonous or non-indigenous microorganisms

Transient microbes derived from food and water that do not colonize a habitat, except under abnormal circumstances.
American Gut Project The world’s largest crowd-sourced, citizen science project aimed at shedding light on the connections between health and the human microbiome.
American Microbiome Institute A nonprofit organization dedicated to making improvements in human health through microbiome science and education.
Andrew Weil, MD Practitioner and teacher of integrative medicine whose personal mission is to drive research, education, and clinical practice to promote a philosophy of health that addresses mind, body, and spirit.
Antibiotic resistance A type of drug resistance during which a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic.
Antibiotics Drugs that are used to combat bacteria and other organisms, including protozoa, parasites, and fungi.
Antifungal Any agent that prevents the growth of fungi.
Antigens Substances that are capable of inducing an immune response that produces antibodies.
Antimicrobial Capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.
Antioxidants Molecules that can prevent or stop damage caused by free radicals.
Artepillin C A major compound in the Brazilian green propolis (Baccharis dracunculiforia); a potent antioxidant and immune modulator.
Autochthonous or indigenous microorganisms Microorganisms that are ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal system and live in all habitats available. Some can be harmful and live without harming the host until the ecosystem is disturbed.
B lymphocytes Immune cells that play a large role in humoral immune response. The principle functions of B cells are to make antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) that attack foreign molecules and the toxins they produce
Bacteriocin A protein produced by some strains of bacteria that inhibits the growth of—or kills—other bacteria.
Bacteroides A genus of bacteria residing in the human gut; some species can be harmful to the host.
Banaba A plant, Lagerstroemia Speciosa, whose leaves have antioxidant effects and promote normal blood glucose levels.
Bifidobacterium bifidum A probiotic strain that colonizes the large and small intestine and promotes and supports microbial balance, nutrient absorption, regularity, and overall digestion.
Bifidobacterium breve A common Bifidobacterium strain in infants that remains in the gut throughout adulthood. B. breve assists in the production of the natural antibiotic, lactobrevin.
Bifidobacterium infantis Common in breastfed infants, B. infantis produces acetic acid, B vitamins, and inhibitory substances to combat inhospitable bacteria.
Bifidobacterium lactis A transient bacteria that can enhance immunity, improve digestion, and help with weight loss. Also called B. animalis.
Bifidobacterium longum Found in high concentrations in the large intestine, this probiotic strain attaches to the intestinal wall and helps crowd out unfriendly bacteria and yeasts.
Bifidobacterium strains Common in the natural flora of human and animal digestive systems, these probiotics stimulate the immune system, aid in digestion, and assist in the absorption of nutrients. Some strains are also capable of synthesizing vitamins.
Bile An alkaline fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile is discharged during digestion into the duodenum, where it aids in the digestion of fats.
Bioavailability The ability of a drug, nutrient, or other substance to be taken up by the body and made available in the tissue where it is needed.
Biofilm A thin community of bacteria that attaches to a surface (such as teeth) by secreting a sugary substance that encompasses the bacteria in a matrix.
Biogenic Produced by living organisms.
BIO-tract® A patented, time-released probiotic delivery method that provides organisms with protection from gastric acids and directs beneficial bacteria to release in the intestines over an 8-10 hour period.
Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) The specialized system of capillary endothelial cells that protects the brain from harmful substances in the bloodstream, while supplying the brain with the required nutrients for proper function.
Bowel The part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus.
British Gut Project An open source, crowd-funded science project aimed at uncovering the microbial content within the guts of British individuals.
Broad-spectrum antibiotic An antibiotic with activity against a wide range of harmful organisms, commonly prescribed because they have more applications and thus are less expensive.
Butyrate A short-chain fatty acid produced by fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon by gut bacteria. As the primary source of energy for colonic cells, this substance is crucial for gut health and provides numerous health benefits.
Chris Kresser, M.S., L.Ac. Globally recognized leader in the fields of ancestral health, Paleo nutrition, and functional and integrative medicine.
Coenzyme Q10 A compound needed for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Coenzyme Q10 is used to produce energy to fuel cell growth and maintenance and is thought to improve the function of mitochondria, the "powerhouses" that produce energy in cells.
Colon The colon is the last part of the digestive system and starts with the first portion of the large intestine and extends to the rectum. It extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body. It is also where bacteria-aided fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs.
Colony Forming Units (CFUs) A measure of how many bacteria in a product are capable of colonizing.
Cran-Gyn™ A proprietary blend of cranberry extract and naturally occurring (non-synthetic) D-Mannose.
Culture The process by which bacterial cells are grown under controlled conditions.
D-Mannose A non-caloric, simple sugar naturally-occurring in some plants, including cranberry, that actively works to prevent undesirable foreign substances from attaching to the urinary tract lining.
David Perlmutter, MD DBoard-certified neurologist; president of the Perlmutter Health Center in Naples, FL; cofounder and president of the Perlmutter Brain Foundation; a Fellow of the College of Nutrition; and four-time New York Times bestselling author. Dr. Perlmutter’s focus is to maintain and improve brain function, and to prevent and treat diseases of the nervous system.
Dental hygiene The practice of keeping the mouth, teeth, and gums clean and healthy, by utilizing brushing, flossing, and preventive dental care.
Detoxification The process of removing toxic substances from the body.
Digestion The process by which food is broken down into nutrients that are absorbed or turned into waste material that is then eliminated.
Digestive enzymes Enzymes that break down food into smaller building blocks in order to facilitate absorption by the body. Digestive enzymes are diverse and are found in saliva, in the stomach, in pancreatic juice, in intestinal (small and large) secretions, or as part of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.
Donna Gates International best-selling author and creator of The Body Ecology Diet, a holistic lifestyle approach to achieving good physical and mental health. Donna is a respected authority in the field of digestive health, diet, and nutrition.
Duodenum The first section of the small intestine starting at the lower end of the stomach. The duodenum is largely responsible for the breakdown of food in the small intestine.
Earth Microbiome Project A multidisciplinary effort to analyze microbial communities across the globe.
Echinacea A widely studied Native American medicinal plant known for its ability to stimulate and boost the immune system.
Elaine Hsiao Senior Research Fellow at Elaine Hsiao Lab, a research organization aimed at better understanding how gut bacteria influence immunity, brain function, and behaviors in the realm of neurological disorders.
Electrolytes Salts that conduct electricity when in solution; they are found in body fluids, in the tissues, and in the blood. Examples are chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium.
Emeran Mayer, MD, PhD Gastroenterologist and director of UCLA’s Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Dr. Mayer is a widely recognized expert on functional GI disorders and brain gut interactions.
Enteric Relating to the intestines.
Enteric coated Refers to a special coating that is applied to tablets or capsules in an effort to protect the contents from stomach acids.
Enterococcus faecalis TH10 This strain was discovered by Dr. Iichiroh Ohhira, and was isolated from the Malaysian food, tempeh. Some question its safety when used as a probiotic supplement in concentrated doses.
Enterococcus faecium An often drug-resistant inhospitable microbe that can live in the G.I. tract, oral cavity, and vaginal tract.
EpiCor® A fermented (deactivated) yeast superfood that supports the immune system on multiple levels and promotes daily vitality and wellness. EpiCor® has three times the antioxidant power of any known fruit and has been clinically shown to help strengthen the immune system by balancing immune response.
Epithelium Tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport, and selective permeability.
Esophagus The muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. In humans and other vertebrates, it is lined with mucous membrane.
Essential fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot manufacture and that may cause nutritional deficiency if not supplied through the diet and/or supplementation. EFAs help cells release toxins and absorb nutrients. The two dietary EFAs are α-linolenic (Omega-3) and linoleic (Omega-6).
Eustachian tube A narrow passage leading from the pharynx to the cavity of the middle ear, permitting the equalization of pressure on each side of the eardrum.
Fecal transplant A procedure during which stool from a donor is transplanted into a patient to replace beneficial bacteria.
Flax Oil Flax oil provides a high concentration of Omega-3 often lacking in modern diets, balances excess Omega-6 intake, and acts as a base when synthesizing other fatty acids in the body.
Fermentation A type of chemical reaction whereby yeasts, bacteria, and other microorganisms break down a substance. When live cultures are added to milk, fermentation occurs.
Flora The collective bacteria and other microorganisms that make up a microbiome.
FOS (fructo-oligosaccharides) Naturally-occurring dietary fibers, often sourced from chicory, that support overall digestive health by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, promoting nutrient absorption, and balancing healthy yeast levels and the pH in the colon. FOS is similar to inulin.
Free radical An unstable molecule that causes oxidative damage by stealing electrons from surrounding molecules, thereby disrupting activity in the body's cells.
Gastroenterology The branch of medicine that studies the digestive system and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus.
Gastrointestinal tract An organ system extending from the mouth to the anus involved in digestion and the elimination of waste products.
Genome The complete set of genes or genetic instructions (DNA) present in a cell or organism. Each genome contains all of the information necessary to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop.
Gerry Mullin, MD Associate professor of medicine at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Dr. Mullin is nationally and internationally renowned for his work in integrative gastroenterology and nutrition.
Gingival sulcus The natural space found between the tooth and surrounding gum tissue.
Giulia Enders Two-time scholarship winner studying medicine at the Institute for Microbiology in Frankfurt. Her presentation of Darm mit Charme (Gut Charm) won her first prize at the Science Slam in Berlin and went viral on YouTube.
Glutamine The most abundant amino acid in the body; removes excess aluminum from the body and can regulate immune function.
Gut This is another term for the intestine and stomach portions of the digestive tract, which is the hollow tube that stretches from the mouth to the anus.
Gut Barrier Made of both the single layer of cells lining the intestinal wall and the beneficial bacteria residing there, the gut barrier allows nutrients into the bloodstream, while keeping toxins and harmful microbes out.
Heidi Nelson, MD Director of the Microbiome Program at Mayo Clinic’s Center for Individualized Medicine. Dr. Nelson’s research and practice focus on the relationship of the microbiome to human health.
Human Food Project A nonprofit effort to understand modern disease against the backdrop of our ancestral/microbial past.
Human Microbiome Project NIH-sponsored project using live volunteers to study microorganisms present in or on five different parts of the human body.
Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) A comprehensive collection of information on the microorganisms found in the human oral cavity.
Immune response The body’s response to an antigen that appears to be harmful.
Immune system A complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from foreign substances.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) An antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) One of five subclasses of antibodies found in the skin, lungs, and mucous membranes.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) IgG is the smallest, but most common, antibody and is present in all body fluids.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Found in the blood and lymph fluid, this is the first antibody produced in response to an harmful foreign substance.
Intestinal microflora The ecosystem of 400 to 500 different species of bacteria in the intestine.
Inulin A nondigestible dietary plant fiber that supports the growth of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine.
James Burgess Executive Director and co-founder of OpenBiome, a non-profit organization dedicated to expanding safe access to fecal microbiota transplants (FTA) and catalyzing research into the human microbiome.
Jeff Leach Founder of The Human Food Project and The American Gut Project. Jeff’s interests are in microbial anthropology and social transference, public health policy, foraging and pastoral societies, and the evolution of the human microbiome.
Jeffrey Gordon, MD Founding Director of the Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology (Washington University, St. Louis, MO) where researchers are exploring the role of gut microbiota in defining our nutrition status.
Justin and Erica Sonnenburg Principal Investigator and Senior Research Scientist at The Sonnenburg Lab (Stanford University School of Medicine). The goal of this research program is to shed light on interactions within the intestinal microbiota and between the microbiota and the host.
Lactobacillus acidophilus The most commonly used probiotic; found primarily in the small intestine and vaginal tract.
Lactobacillus brevis A probiotic strain important in the synthesis of vitamins D and K. Research studies have shown that L. brevis decreases intestinal permeability, improves intestinal flora, and has a positive effect on the intestinal immune system.
Lactobacillus bulgaricus A transient microorganism that is often found in cultured dairy products. L. bulgaricus assists in the metabolism of lipids.
Lactobacillus casei Closely related to L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus, it secretes a substance called “peptidoglycan” that supports the natural defenses of the body and stimulates immune responses in the intestinal tract.
Lactobacillus fermentum An antimicrobial and anti-oxidative probiotic that is useful in supporting the vaginal tract.
Lactobacillus gasseri A probiotic strain that supports vaginal and digestive health.
Lactobacillus helveticus A probiotic strain that stimulates the immune and digestive system, controls temporary diarrhea, reduces lactose intolerance, and inhibits unfriendly bacteria. L. helveticus enhances the recovery of gut atrophy induced by malnutrition.
Lactobacillus organisms Probiotic strains that inhabit the human mouth, intestines, and vagina. They produce lactic acid in the digestive tract, which is vital for overall health.
Lactobacillus paracasei A probiotic strain that colonizes the small intestine and supports liver function.
Lactobacillus plantarum A probiotic strain that supports digestion and immune function.
Lactobacillus reuteri A probiotic strain that colonizes in both the intestines and oral cavity; supports digestive, immune, and oral health.
Lactobacillus reuteri SD-5865 Strain specific to Glucose Support.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus A widely-used probiotic strain with strong adherence properties in the G.I. and vaginal tract.
Lactobacillus sakei A probiotic strain especially helpful for upper respiratory and sinus issues.
Lactobacillus salivarius A probiotic strain that supports overall digestion.
Leonard Smith, MD A respected general, gastrointestinal, and vascular surgeon on the cutting edge of holistic medicine. Dr. Smith is the medical advisor for the University of Miami’s Department of Integrative Medicine.
LiveBac® A patented manufacturing process that provides a guaranteed shelf life of 18 months from the date of manufacture with zero refrigeration.
Lungs Primary organs of human respiration.
Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, PhD American Microbiome Institute scientific advisory board member and NYU Associate Professor, Dept. of Medicine. Dr. Dominguez-Bello’s research is focused on how Western lifestyles impact the modern microbiome, and how it differs from microbiomes of traditional societies.
Mark Hyman, MD Medical Director at Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Functional Medicine, founder of The UltraWellness Center, and bestselling author. Dr. Hyman is dedicated to using functional medicine to transform healthcare.
Mark Smith, PhD Research Director and co-founder of OpenBiome, a non-profit organization dedicated to expanding access to fecal transplants and to inspiring human microbiome research.
Martin J. Blaser, MD Director of the Human Microbiome Project at NYU, and author of Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics is Fueling Our Modern Plagues.
Maryn McKenna Award-winning journalist and author who specializes in global health, food policy, and public health.
Microbe A microscopic organism.
Microbial colonization The dense growth of microorganisms within a specific area of the host.
Microbiome A community of microbes living in an environment, especially the human body.
Microbiome homeostasis The healthy balance of all microbiota within their specific environment.
Microbiomics A growing scientific field focused on researching the interconnected roles of all microorganisms within a microbiotic community, especially in relation to human health.
Microbiota The microorganisms within a specific area, location, or time period.
Microorganism A microscopic living organism that can only be seen under a microscope.
Middle ear The central cavity of the ear responsible for transmitting sound waves to the inner ear. The middle ear is directly connected to the nasal cavity.
Milk test A common myth about probiotic effectiveness. See How to Trust Your Supplement.
MO BIO Laboratories A company that provides DNA isolation kits for soil, water, plants, and stool samples that are used by microbiome projects like the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) and the NIH funded Human Microbiome Project (HMP).
Mucosa A moist layer of semi-permeable tissue that lines and protects particular organs and cavities throughout the body.
My New Gut A multidisciplinary consortium aimed at investigating how the human gut microbiota and genome (microbiome) influence diet-related health issues for the purpose of promoting healthier lifestyles.
Nasal passages Channels of airflow through the nose lined with mucous membranes that help protect against invaders.
Nasopharynx The upper part of the throat situated directly behind the nasal cavity.
Natural killer cells A cell that can react against and destroy another cell without prior sensitization to it. Natural killer (NK) cells are part of our first line of defense.
Nutrient Absorption The body’s ability to absorb nutrients from food and supplements.
Oligosaccharides Any group of carbohydrates consisting of a small number of simple sugar molecules; most commercial prebiotics are oligosaccharides.
OpenBiome A nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting human microbiome research and expanding safe access to fecal microbiota transplants (FMT).
Orafti™ P95 A prebiotic shown to support healthy weight loss by encouraging the proliferation of beneficial bacteria.
Oral cavity Refers to the mouth.
Oral health The ability to successfully perform all functions of the oral cavity without pain or discomfort.
Oral hygiene The practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean, especially by brushing and flossing.
Oral microbiome The collection of organisms that inhabit the oral region, which includes the mouth, nose, sinuses, ears, and throat.
Oral microbiome homeostasis The healthy balance of all microbiota within the oral cavity that play a vital role in both oral and overall health.
Oral microbiota The community of bacteria living in the oral cavity.
Oral probiotics Beneficial strains of bacteria that encourage a healthy balance of microorganisms within the oral cavity.
Oxidative stress A form of stress on the body resulting from the cumulative damage by free radicals unopposed by antioxidants.
p Coumaric Acid A phenolic acid, an organic compound and hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid that has antioxidant properties.
Palates (hard and soft) Refers to the roof area of the mouth, between the upper teeth (hard palate) and extending back to the rear of the mouth (soft palate).
Parasite An organism that lives in or on a host and obtains nourishment from the host.
pH A scale of acidity, from 0-14, that represents how acidic a substance is. The lower the number, the more acidic.
Polyphenols Chemical substances found in plants that may have antioxidant characteristics with potential health benefits. Their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the human diet is much greater than that of vitamins.
Prebiotic Nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system.
Probiotic (American definition) Live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.
Probiotic (Japanese definition) Probiotics are viable microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance.
Propolis A natural protective antibiotic substance that bees apply throughout the interior of their hives. Flavonoid-rich, it is derived from plant and tree resins.
Ramnik Xavier, MD Clinical gastroenterologist, molecular biologist, and researcher. Dr. Xavier is part of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP2) and co-directs the Center for Microbiome Informatics and Therapeutics at MIT.
Resistant starch A type of starch that is not fully digested in the stomach or small intestine; it makes its way to the colon where bacteria ferment it and colonic cells use it for energy.
Robert Knight, PhD Co-founder of the American Gut Project and member of the Earth Microbiome Project steering committee. Dr. Knight is also Principal Investigator at Knight Lab, where ongoing research explores the complex microbial ecosystems of the human body.
Robynne Chutkan, MD, FASGE Integrative gastroenterologist, bestselling author, and microbiome expert.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Also known as baker’s yeast, this species of yeast is often used in brewing, winemaking, and baking.
Saccharomyces boulardii A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. boulardii is often used as a probiotic to treat and prevent temporary diarrhea and to ease digestive complaints.
Sandor Ellix Katz American food writer and DIY food activist who is especially passionate about fermenting food and sharing his knowledge with others.
Second Geome A leading biopharmaceutical company that develops novel m
Sinuses A series of hollow, air-filled cavities around the nose that are considered part of the oral cavity. Sinuses produce mucus that drains into the nose.
Soil Based Organisms Bacteria and other spore-forming organisms found naturally in the ground, as opposed to the human body.
Streptococcus salivarius M18 An oral probiotic strain that supports healthy gums and teeth. M18 crowds out undesirable bacteria and produces an enzyme that helps dissolve and loosen the formation of biofilm and sticky deposits on teeth.
Streptococcus salivarius K12 An oral probiotic strain shown to crowd out undesirable bacteria that are linked with dental and upper respiratory issues.
Streptococcus thermophilus This probiotic strain efficiently breaks down lactose and stimulates the production of cytokines.
Starter bacteria Also called starter cultures, the bacteria used to start a fermented product. The number of starter bacteria required by the National Yogurt Association’s Live & Active Cultures refers to the amount of bacteria in the starter culture, not in the finished product.
Steven Olmstead, MD Chief Science Officer at ProThera, Inc., Dr. Olmstead’s current research focuses on the use of enzymes and chelating agents to disrupt pathogenic GI biofilm and pre- and probiotics to restore gut microbial balance.
Stevia A natural, noncaloric sweetener derived from the leaves of the stevia plant native to South America.
Strain A subtype that develops within a species of bacteria, causing the organisms of that species to vary slightly from one another.
Strain diversity The amount of bacterial strains present within a specific microbiotic community.
Stool test An analysis done on a feces sample to identify bacteria and parasites that can cause digestive tract conditions.
Symbiosis The harmonious relationship between two dissimilar organisms in a mutually beneficial relationship.
Synbiotic A dietary supplement that contains one or more prebiotics and probiotics that work synergistically.
T lymphocytes A type of white blood cell, either helper T-cells or killer T-cells. T-cells scan the body for foreign invaders, kill infected cells, and activate immune cells.
Teeth Hard, enamel-covered structures that are embedded in the jaws of the oral cavity and used for biting and chewing food.
Time-released Released in small amounts over time.
Tocopherols Vitamin E in water soluble form, tocopherols are powerful antioxidants that protect cell membranes against the damaging effects of free radicals.
Tocotrienols One of the two molecule groups that makes up Vitamin E.
Tonsils A pair of small tissue masses located in the back of the throat near the tongue’s base. As part of the lymphatic system, the tonsils help to protect against ingested or inhaled invaders.
Toxins A harmful or poisonous biological or environmental substance.
Trachea Often referred to as the windpipe, this cartilaginous tube connects the throat and lungs and enables the passage of air into the body.
Triclosan A antibacterial and antifungal agent (now banned by the FDA due to health concerns) found in consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments.
uBiome A leading genomics company that developed the microbiome screening test, SmartGut™, to identify key organisms in the gut.
Vaginal Microbiome Consortium A group of multidisciplinary researchers studying the impact of the vaginal microbiome on women’s health.
Veggie capsules A common delivery form for supplements. Veggie capsules are composed of water and HPMC (derived from vegetable cellulose) and are designed to dissolve quickly in the stomach, meaning they are unable to offer most probiotic organisms adequate protection from stomach acids.
Vitamin C An essential vitamin with antioxidant properties that supports immune function. Vitamin C is not stored in the body and must come from outside sources like food or supplements.
Vitamin D3 A vitamin obtained from dietary sources and/or produced by the body when exposed to ultraviolet light that is particularly beneficial for healthy glucose levels.
Vitamin E A fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant and prevents free radical damage.
Western diet A diet typically characterized by higher intakes of saturated fats, red meats, fried and/or processed foods, white sugar, and empty carbohydrates, with limited consumption of fresh produce, whole grains, and lean meats.
White kidney bean extract A “starch blocker” that has been clinically shown to reduce the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates by up to 66%, helping to manage a healthy weight.
Yeast Yeasts are microscopic, single-celled organisms belonging to the fungi kingdom — the taxonomic group that also includes mushrooms and mold.
Zinc An antioxidant that helps protect cells against the effects of free radicals, while playing a vital role in the formation of connective tissue, teeth, and bones.