There is a crucial harmony that comes when everything coexists just as nature intended. Eastern cultures have long understood the importance of this balance and connectedness, but here in the west, our approach is historically a little more one-sided—generally focused on obliterating the bad to make way for the good. This is especially true when it comes to our views on cleanliness.
Sanitizing our homes, workplaces, and bodies is often viewed as an all out war aimed at vanquishing every last germ that crosses our paths. This way of thinking fueled the creation of all the powerful antimicrobial cleaning products lining the shelves almost everywhere we shop.
Using these products may sound like a good plan at first glance—after all, don’t we want to get rid of germs that could make us unwell? Before you reach for that bottle of industrial strength cleaner, though, explore what science has to say about this question, and how failing to respect nature’s balance always comes at a cost.
Chemical Cleaning Products and Your Lungs
Many of us have developed a positive association with the scents everyday household cleaning products leave behind, especially if this is the way our parents cleaned. But the scary truth is that breathing in these chemicals year after year might make it a lot more difficult to breathe at all.
Scientists in Norway recently released a groundbreaking 20-year study of more than 6,000 participants that revealed a clear link between toxic cleaning product use and the risk of developing lung troubles. The more often women cleaned, researchers discovered, the more serious the effects to their lungs. Women who worked as professional cleaners suffered the most, incurring as much lung damage as would be expected in someone smoking 20 cigarettes every day.1
Exposure to strong cleaning products was associated with increased decline in both these major areas of lung function:
• FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second): This is the amount of air a person can forcibly breath out in a single second.
• FVC (forced vital capacity): This is the measure of how much air a person can forcibly exhale given as much time as they need to do so.
Researchers believe that the cause of this decline is likely due to cleaning chemicals irritating mucus membranes in the airways, which with repeated long-term exposure resulted in lasting negative changes to the airways themselves. Interestingly, no men in the study seemed to be affected. This may be because fewer men than women work as professional cleaners, and those who do may be exposed to different levels of chemicals than women who clean for a living.
Unfortunately, toxic cleaning products aren’t just tough on your respiratory function—they can absolutely decimate your (and your home’s) microbiome.
Antimicrobials and Your Microbiome
Many of the strong chemical ingredients in today’s cleaning products were put there specifically for their antimicrobial properties. The trouble with this strategy is that these chemicals aren’t selective—they kill probiotic organisms along with the types of bacteria we don’t want around. Some of these ingredients, such as parabens, ammonia, chlorine bleach, QUATS, Triclosan, and triclocarban, are absorbed through the skin in varying degrees—and once inside your body, they may upset your delicate microbial balance.
Triclosan and triclocarban turn up in human blood, mucus, and even breast milk—and they’re so prevalent that it’s estimated the odds are about 40% that they are in your body, too.2 The fact that these dangerous ingredients get into breast milk is particularly disturbing: one study found that the gut microbiomes of both nursing moms and babies were affected by Triclosan exposure, driving home how important it is to protect our guts by being mindful not only of what goes into our mouths, but also what we interact with in our environment.3
Toxic cleaning chemicals can also easily find their way into soil, air, and water, and animal studies highlight the damaging potential for our planet’s wildlife. Zebrafish fed a diet infused with Triclosan experienced a dramatic alteration of their microbiomes after only four days. And when female rats were exposed to Triclosan during pregnancy and while nursing, both moms and pups developed gut dysbiosis.4,5
In addition to specific negative changes in the gut that may be triggered by exposure to certain antimicrobials, it’s also important to consider the “hygiene hypothesis” and its implications for our overall health. Originally introduced in the late 1800s and gaining increasing respect in recent years, this theory presents evidence that we all need exposure to lots of different types of microbes in our environment in order to stimulate our developing immune systems as babies and children. Cleaning too zealously with antimicrobials leaves young immune systems with nothing to practice on, which over time can create vulnerability to troublesome microbial invaders—as well as sensitivity to foods or plants when an inexperienced immune system can’t tell if it’s being exposed to a friend or foe.
Super Cleaners and Superbugs
Since the root of physical and mental wellness lies in a balanced gut, it’s troubling enough that antimicrobial cleaning products can wreak havoc with microbial health. Unfortunately, the consequences of this type of microbial warfare go much further. That’s because, as effective as they are, when you use these cleaners, you aren’t actually killing every single living organism. And the microbial species that do survive your chemical attack are the tiny subpopulations that are naturally resistant to antibiotics and antimicrobials.
In a balanced environment (internal or out in the world), friendly flora crowd out the bulk of microbial troublemakers, and the percentage of resistant undesirable microbes is too minute to do much harm. But when antimicrobials come on the scene, resistant bacteria gain a real advantage. As their neighbors die off, these “superbugs” that are especially difficult to kill have room to reproduce—and when their numbers grow large enough to impact your health, existing medications may prove completely ineffective.6
Steer Clear of Toxic Chemicals
Cleaning product labels can be misleading, and many cleansers labeled “natural” or “gentle” are anything but. To protect yourself, your family, and our precious planet, here are a few of the most commonly used harmful ingredients to avoid:
• 2-Butoxyethanol: A common ingredient in kitchen, window, and multipurpose cleaners that can interfere with the health of your red blood cells.
• Ammonia: Found in glass and bathroom cleaners, ammonia can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, throat, and lungs.
• Chlorine Bleach: A potent antimicrobial and respiratory irritant, bleach is a major ingredient in mildew removers, toilet bowl cleaners, and scouring powders. Mixing chlorine bleach with ammonia can create highly toxic chlorine gas, so consider using hydrogen peroxide as a safer bleach alternative.
• Sodium Hydroxide: A known mucous membrane irritant, this is used in many oven cleaners and drain openers.
• Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): SLS is a detergent that creates the rich type of lather we’ve become accustomed to in cleansers, and is present in most shampoos and hand soaps. This ingredient can be very irritating to eyes, mouth, and skin.7,8
• Fragrance: Although the term “fragrance” sounds innocent enough, it can refer to any one of thousands of chemicals linked to skin, kidney, respiratory, and cellular issues.9
• Parabens: These antimicrobial, chemical preservatives are associated with negative effects in breasts, hormones, and reproductive areas.10,11
• Phthalates: Commonly found in a host of cleansing products including dish soaps, detergents, and shampoo, phthalates have been shown to negatively impact respiratory health and reproductive function, as well as cause DNA damage.12,13,14,15
• Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QUATS): Found in antibacterial household cleaners, fabric softeners, and dryer sheets. At least two studies identify QUATS as the cause of respiratory issues in cleaning workers.16,17
• Triclosan: This antimicrobial agent has been used in a wide range of products including dish liquid, soap, deodorant, toothpaste, and even mops. In addition to impacting microbial balance and infiltrating living tissue, Triclosan can also lead to increased sensitivity to the environment as well as harmful cellular and endocrine changes.18,19,20 Thankfully, the FDA recently banned the use of Triclosan (and its close relative triclocarban) in hand and body soaps, but you’ll still need to be on the lookout for these toxic ingredients in other products.
• Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): Don’t let the word “organic” fool you! Inhaling these gases, which are frequently used in products including household cleaners, disinfectants, and air fresheners, can cause eye, liver, nervous system, respiratory tract, and skin troubles—as well as GI discomfort and challenges with equilibrium.21
There’s a Better Way to Clean
Good news! Despite what advertisements may be telling you, you don’t have to rely on toxic products to keep your home and body clean. Turn to nature instead, starting with a basic liquid Castile soap that, when mixed with plain water, works effectively as a hand soap, shampoo, and dishwashing liquid. Combined with other natural ingredients such as baking soda, sea salt, essential oils, or vinegar, you can also make your own very safe laundry detergent, bathroom cleaner, and even glass cleaner.
When shopping for a Castile soap, look for an authentic product made using the old-world method (such as Country Rose Soap Company) that contains nothing but pure, saponified olive oil. For a sparkling clean home, you’ll also want to have other potent natural cleansers on hand, like lemon juice.
If the DIY approach feels overwhelming, you can still find prepared household products such as Aunt Fannie’s that use only GRAS certified natural ingredients that work in harmony with the microbial environment to clean your home safely, without over-sanitizing.
Our cleaning choices may feel inconsequential, but making the decision to use only natural cleaning products truly makes a difference on both a small and planetary scale. Even though toxic chemicals are still widely used, removing them from your home will drastically reduce your personal exposure, as well as your family’s—and it also makes a very real dent in the toxic load our planet bears. And once you commit to approaching cleanliness in a way that respects the balance of nature, you’ll be able to breathe a whole lot easier.
1. Svanes, Ø., Bertelsen, R. J., Lygre, S. H., Carsin, A. E., Antó, J. M., Forsberg, B., … Svanes, C. (2018). Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. doi:10.1164/rccm.201706-1311oc
2. Syed, A. K., Ghosh, S., Love, N. G., & Boles, B. R. (2014). Triclosan Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization. MBio, 5(2).
3. Kennedy, R.C. (2012, June). Triclocarban (TCC) Exposure in Pregnancy and during the Female Neonate Period Compromises Lactation and Reproductive Development. Paper presented at the Endocrine Society’s 94th Annual Meeting and Expo, Houston, TX.
4. Gaulke, C. A., Barton, C. L., Proffitt, S., Tanguay, R. L., & Sharpton, T. J. (2016). Triclosan Exposure Is Associated with Rapid Restructuring of the Microbiome in Adult Zebrafish. PLOS ONE, 11(5), e0154632. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154632
5. Kennedy, R., Fling, R., Robeson, M., Saxton, A., Bemis, D., Liu, J., … Zhao, L. (2016, April 1). Trichlorocarbanilide Exposure Induces Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in Neonatal Rats. Retrieved from https://endo.confex.com/endo/2016endo/webprogram/Paper24976.html
6. Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 512-515. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017705
7. Babich, H. (1997). Sodium lauryl sulfate and triclosan: in vitro cytotoxicity studies with gingival cells. Toxicology Letters, 91(3), 189-196. doi:10.1016/s0378-4274(97)00022-2
8. Lee, C. H., Kim, H. W., Han, H. J., & Park, C. W. (2004). A Comparison Study of Nonanoic Acid and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in Skin Irritation. Exogenous Dermatology, 3(1), 19-25. doi:10.1159/000084139
9. Steinemann, A. (2017). Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 11(1), 3-9. doi:10.1007/s11869-017-0536-2
10. Pan, S., Yuan, C., Tagmount, A., Rudel, R. A., Ackerman, J. M., Yaswen, P., … Leitman, D. C. (2015). Parabens and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Cross-Talk in Breast Cancer Cells. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(5). doi:10.1289/ehp.1409200
11. Kolatorova, L., Vitku J., Hampl R., Adamcova K., Skodova T., Simkova M., Parizek A., Starka L., Duskova M. (2018). Exposure to bisphenols and parabens during pregnancy and relations to steroid changes. Environmental Research, 163, 115-122. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.031
12. Environmental Health Perspectives. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov
13. Environmental Health Perspectives – Asthma in Inner-City Children at 5–11 Years of Age and Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates: The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health Cohort. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307670/
14. Hauser, R., & Calafat, A. (2005). PHTHALATES AND HUMAN HEALTH. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(11), 806-818. doi:10.1136/oem.2004.017590
15. Duty, S. M., Singh, N. P., Silva, M. J., Barr, D. B., Brock, J. W., Ryan, L., … Hauser, R. (2002). The Relationship between Environmental Exposures to Phthalates and DNA Damage in Human Sperm Using the Neutral Comet Assay. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(9), 1164-1169. doi:10.1289/ehp.5756
16. A. Purohit, A. et al. (2000). Quaternary ammonium compounds and occupational asthma. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, August 2000, vol. 73, no. 6:, 423-27.
17. J.A. Bernstein, J. A. et al. (1994). A combined respiratory and cutaneous hypersensitivity syndrome induced by work exposure to quaternary amines. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, August 1994, vol. 94, no. 2, Part 1, 257-59.
18. Bertelsen, R. J., Longnecker, M. P., Lovik, M., Carlsen, K., London, S., & Carlsen, K. C. (2012). Triclosan Exposure And Allergic Sensitization In Norwegian Children. D33. ASTHMA PATHOGENESIS. doi:10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2012.185.1_meetingabstracts.a5663
19. James, M. O., Li, W., Summerlot, D. P., Rowland-Faux, L., & Wood, C. E. (2010). Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estradiol and estrone sulfonation in sheep placenta. Environment International, 36(8), 942-949. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.02.004
20. McMurry, L. M., Oethinger, M., & Levy, S. B. (1998). Triclosan targets lipid synthesis. Nature, 394(6693), 531-532. doi:10.1038/28970
21. Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality | US EPA. (2017, November 6). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/volatile-organic-compounds-impact-indoor-air-quality
Roberta Pescow is a writer at Hyperbiotics and proud mom of two amazing and unique young men. Natural wellness is a subject she’s passionate about, so she loves sharing information that helps others discover all the ways probiotics support glowing health and well-being. To learn more about how a healthy microbiome can enrich your life, subscribe to our newsletter.
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